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  • Roman Empire Timeline and Roman Invasion of Britain

    Period: The Monarchy, 753 BC to 509 BC
    Political and military events
    Cultural and other events
    753 Foundation of Rome
    616-579 Tarquinius Priscus c.600

    Iron Age huts on Palatine hill
    Forum area drained

    Earliest Latin inscriptions Capitoline temple built

    579-543 Servius Tullius


    Tarquinius Superbus
    509 Expulsion of the Kings More temples built
    494 Plebeians struggle with patricians for rights First law code: Twelve Tables
    450 City wall built Romanisation of Italy
    390 Rome sacked by Gauls
    378 Appian Way built
    338 Extension of Roman citizenship 312 Coinage begins
    278 End of struggle with patricians c280 First gladiatorial games
    272 Rome wins control of whole of Italy Hellenisation of Roman society; comedies of Plautus and Terence; poetry of Ennius
    264-241 First Punic War (against Carthage): Rome wins Sicily
    218-201 Second Punic War: Hannibal defeated; 206 Spain becomes two Roman provinces
    214-167 Macedonian Wars
    197-133 Wars in Spain
    149-146 Third Punic War: Carthage destroyed, Africa becomes Roman province
    148 Macedonia becomes Roman province  
    133 Asia becomes Roman province; land reforms of Tiberius Gracchus

    Laws of Gaius Gracchu

    113-101 War against Cimbri
    107-86 Seven consulships of Marius; 104 army reform
    91-87 Social War; Roman citizenship extended to all Italy
    88-85 First Mithridatic War
    82-81 Dictatorship of Sulla: proscriptions, reforms; rise of Pompey
    73-71 Revolt of Spartacus
    Third Mithridatic War
    63 Consulship of Cicero; conspiracy of Catiline
    60 'First triumvirate' (Pompey, Caesar, Crassus)
    58-50 Caesar conquers Gaul; 55, 54 expeditions to Britain

    Speeches, treatises and letters of Cicero; poetry of Catullus and Lucretius; histories of Caesar; 55 Pompey's theatre


    49-45 Caesar wins civil war against Pompey and republicans
    44 Caesar dictator for life; assassinated 46 Caesar's forum
    43 'Second triumvirate' (Antony, Octavian, Lepidus); proscriptions, murder of Cicero c39 Histories of Sallust
    Virgil's Eclogues
    32-31 Octavian wins civil war against Mark Antony; 31 Actium
    29 Virgil's Georgics
    Period: The Empire, 27 BC to AD 476
    Political and military events
    Cultural and other events
    27 Octavian becomes first emperor Augustus 27 Agrippa's Pantheon
    19 Virgil's Aeneid; poetry of Horace, Tibullus, Propertius, Ovid; history of Livy
    16-AD 6 Conquest of Danube provinces
    Theatre of Marcellus
    Ara Pacis Augustae
    Augustus' forum
    AD AD
    9 Varian disaster
    14 Death of Augustus 14

    Augustus' Res Gestae

    Teaching and death of Christ

    14-37 Tiberius
    37-41 Caligula
    41-54 Claudius
    43 Conquest of Britain
    54-68 Nero Treatises and tragedies of Seneca; poetry of Persius and Lucan; novel of Petronius
    Boudicca's revolt
    64 Fire of Rome; first persecution of Christians
    66-70 Jewish revolt

    Galba, Otho, Vitellius



    Histories and treatises of Pliny the Elder
    79 Eruption of Vesuvius
    81-96 Domitian 80
    Epigrams of Martial, rhetoric of Quintilian
    Histories of Tacitus, letters of Pliny the Younger, satires of Juvenal




    107 Conquest of Dacia 112
    Trajan's forum

    Biographies of Suetonius



    138-161 Antoninus Pius 142 Hadrian's Wall
    Antonine Wall
    Novel and oratory of Apuleius; legal writings of
    Marcus Aurelius
    193-235 Severan dynasty
    212 Roman citizenship extended to all free inhabitants of the empire 216 Baths of Caracalla
    272 Dacia ceded to the Goths 260 Decree of toleration of Christianity
    Aurelian's city wall
    293 Tetrarchy established
    307-337 Constantine I

    Defeat of Maxentius at Milvian Bridge



    Arch of Constantine




    410 Britain told to defend itself 324 Foundation of Constantinople
    455 Vandals sack Rome
    476 Loss of western Roman empire complete

    Timeline of the Roman invasion of Britain
    26th - 31st August 55BC Julius Caesar attempted to invade Britain

    Julius Caesar crossed the Channel with a force of around 10,000 soldiers. They landed on the beach at Deal and were met by a force of Britons. The Romans eventually took the beach and waited for cavalry back up to arrive from France. However, a storm prevented the back up force from reaching Britain and Caesar had to withdraw.

    July - Sept 54BC Julius Caesar's second invasion of Britain

    Julius Caesar crossed the Channel with a force of around 27,000 infantry and cavalry. They landed again at Deal and were unopposed - the Britons had retreated to higher ground. The Romans marched inland and met a large force of Britons led by Cassivellaunus north of the River Thames. After a hard battle the Romans defeated the Britons and some tribal leaders surrendered to the Romans. Cassivellanus ordered crops to be burned and made guerrilla attacks on Roman forces.  But the Romans were too strong and Cassivellanus was forced to surrender. In September Caesar was forced to return to Gaul (France) to deal with problems there and the Romans left Britain.

    54BC - 43AD Roman influence increased

    Although not present in Britain, the influence of the Romans increased due to trade links

    5AD Cymbeline Cymbeline, King of the Catuvellauni tribe, was acknowledged by Rome to be King of Britain
    May 43AD Romans Invaded Britain

    A Roman force of about 40,000 led by Aulus Plautius landed in Kent. They defeated a force of Britons led by Caratacus and began taking the South-East of Britain. Caratacus escaped and fled to Wales where he set up a resistance base.

    Autumn 43AD Claudius arrived with reinforcements

    The Roman emperor Claudius arrived in Britain with reinforcements. Colchester (Camulodunum) was taken and eleven tribal Kings surrendered to the Romans. Claudius appointed Aulus Plautius Governor of Britain before returning to Rome.

    43 - 47AD Conquest of the South

    The Romans continued their conquest and by 47AD had conquered the whole of South Britain and claimed Britain as part of the Roman Empire.

    47 - 50AD London Founded

    London (Londinium) was founded and a bridge built across the river Thames. A network of roads was built across the south of Britain.

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