Metal detecting holidays in England

with the Worlds most successful metal detecting club

Twinned with Midwest Historical Research Society USA

Elizabeth 1st hammered silver sixpences only

See Elizabeth 1st hammered silver small change - 1/2,1, 2 and 3 pence silver coins

Click here groats (4 pence coins)

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Elizabeth I was born in 1533 to Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Although she entertained many marriage proposals and flirted incessantly, she never married or had children. Elizabeth, the last of the Tudors, died at seventy years of age after a very successful forty-four year reign.

Elizabeth inherited a tattered realm: dissension between Catholics and Protestants tore at the very foundation of society; the royal treasury had been bled dry by Mary and her advisors, Mary's loss of Calais left England with no continental possessions for the first time since the arrival of the Normans in 1066 and many (mainly Catholics) doubted Elizabeth's claim to the throne. Continental affairs added to the problems - France had a strong footland in Scotland, and Spain, the strongest western nation at the time, posed a threat to the security of the realm. Elizabeth proved most calm and calculating (even though she had a horrendous temper) in her political acumen, employing capable and distinguished men to carrying out royal prerogative.

Her first order of business was to eliminate religious unrest. Elizabeth lacked the fanaticism of her siblings, Edward VI favored Protestant radicalism, Mary I, conservative Catholicism, which enabled her to devise a compromise that,basically, reinstated Henrician reforms. She was, however, compelled to take a stronger Protestant stance for two reasons: the machinations of Mary Queen of Scots and persecution of continental Protestants by the two strongholds of Orthodox Catholicism, Spain and France. The situation with Mary Queen of Scots was most vexing to Elizabeth. Mary, in Elizabeth's custody beginning in 1568 (for her own protection from radical Protestants and disgruntled Scots), gained the loyalty of Catholic factions and instituted several-failed assassination/overthrow plots against her cousin, Elizabeth. After irrefutable evidence of Mary's involvement in such plots came to light, Elizabeth sadly succumbed to the pressure from her advisors and had the Scottish princess executed in 1587.

The persecution of continental Protestants forced Elizabeth into war, a situation which she desperately tried to avoid. She sent an army to aid French Huguenots (Calvinists who had settled in France) after a 1572 massacre wherein over three thousand Huguenots lost their lives. She sent further assistance to Protestant factions on the continent and in Scotland following the emergence of radical Catholic groups and assisted Belgium in their bid to gain independence from Spain. The situation came to head after Elizabeth rejected a marriage proposal from Philip II of Spain; the indignant Spanish King, incensed by English piracy and forays in New World exploration, sent his much-feared Armada to raid England. However, the English won the naval battle handily, due as much to bad weather as to English naval prowess. England emerged as the world's strongest naval power, setting the stage for later English imperial designs.

Elizabeth was a master of political science. She inherited her father's supremacist view of the monarchy, but showed great wisdom by refusing to directly antagonize Parliament. She acquired undying devotion from her advisement council, who were constantly perplexed by her habit of waiting to the last minute to make decisions. She used the varying factions (instead of being used by them, as were her siblings), playing one off another until the exhausted combatants came to her for resolution of their grievances. Few English monarchs enjoyed such political power, while still maintaining the devotion of the whole of English society.

Elizabeth's reign was during one of the more constructive periods in English history. Literature bloomed through the works of Spenser, Marlowe and Shakespeare. Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh were instrumental in expanding English influence in the New World. Elizabeth's religious compromise laid many fears to rest. Fashion and education came to the fore because of Elizabeth's penchant for knowledge, courtly behavior and extravagant dress. Good Queen Bess, as she came to called, maintained a regal air until the day she died; a quote, from a letter by Paul Hentzen, reveals the aging queen's regal nature: "Next came the Queen in the sixty-fifth year of her age, as we were told, very majestic; her face oblong, fair, but wrinkled; her eyes small yet black and pleasant; her nose a little hooked; her lips narrow... she had in her ear two pearls, with very rich drops... her air was stately; her manner of speaking mild and obliging." This regal figure surely had her faults, but the last Tudor excelled at rising to challenges and emerging victorious.

PENNY: 0.5 gram
THREEHALFPENCE: 0.75 g
HALF GROAT: 1.0 g
THREEPENCE: 1.5 g
GROAT: 2 g
SIXPENCE: 3 g
SHILLING: 6 g

 

Initial mark Date Used

Lis

1558-1560
Only hammered silver groats ( 4 pences) issued under this mint mark

 

Cross Crosslet

1560 - 1561

Only hammered silver groats ( 4 pences) issued under this mint mark

 

Martlet

1560 - 1561

Only hammered silver groats ( 4 pences) issued under this mint mark

 

Star

1560 - 1566

Milled silver coins only

 

Pheon

1561 - 1565

1564 1562
1562 1561
1561 1561
1561 1565
1562 1561
1562 1565
1561 1563
1561 1561
1561 1561
1562 1564
1562 1561
1562 1561-5

 

Rose

1565

1565 1565
1565 1565
 
1565  

 

Portcullis

1566

 
1566  

 

Lion

1566 - 1567

1566 1566
1566-7 1566
   
   

 

Coronet

1567 - 1570

1568  
1569 1567
1567 1569
1569 1567
1567 1567
1568 1568
1570 1568
1569 1567
1567-70 1567
1567-70 1569
1569 1569
1569 1569
1567-70 1569
1567-70 1567
1567 1569
1567 1567 Elizabeth 1st hammered silver sixpence
1569 1568
 
1568  

 

Castle

1569 - 1571

1571 1571
1570 1571
1571 1571
 
1571  

 

Ermine

1572 - 1573

1572 1572
1572 1572
1572 1572-3
1573 1573
1573 1573
1572 1573
1573 1573
 
1572  

 

Acorn

1573 - 1574

1573 1573
1572 1573
1572 1572
1573 1573

 

Eglantine

1573 - 1577

  1577
1573 1575
1575 1575
1574 1575
1575 1574
  1575  1575
 1575 1573- 77
1574 1575
 
1575  

 

Cross Greek

1578 - 1579

1578 1578
1578 1578
1578 1578
 
1579  
   

Cross Latin

1580 - 1581

1580 1580
1580 1581
1580 1580 -double stuck head
1581 1580
1580 1581
 
1581  

 

Sword

1582

1582 1582
 
1582  

 

Bell

1582 - 1583

1582 1583
1582 1583
 
1583  

 

A

1582 - 1584

1582  
1583 1583
1582 1583
1582-4 1584
 
1582-4  

 

Escallop

1584 - 1586

1584 1585
 
1584  

 

Crescent

1587 - 1589

1589 1587
1589 1587

Hand

1590 - 1592

1592 1591

Tun

1591 - 1595

1595 1593
1592 1593
1593 1592

 

Woolpack

1594 - 1596

1594 1595
1594-6 1595

 

Key

1595 - 1598

1596 1595 - 1598

 

Anchor

1598 - 1600

1599 Elizabeth 1st hammered silver sixpence - Anchor mint mark

 

 

0

1600

   

 

1

1601 - 1602

   

 

2

1602

 

1602 1602

1601

 
   
Unknown dates with illegible mint marks
   
 

See Elizabeth 1st hammered silver small change - 1/2,1, 2 and 3 pence silver coins

See Elizabeth 1st hammered gold and silver large denomination coins - 4,and 12 pence