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In 1939 archaeologists unearthed an amazing Anglo-Saxon ship burial in Woodbridge Suffolk; amazing both for the state of preservation of the objects within the tomb, but also astonishing for the sheer rich quality of the artifacts. The burial goods from Sutton Hoo are remarkable - gold weapons and armour, inlaid ornaments, silver and tableware. Also found with the body was a purse containing 37 gold Merovingian (Gaulish) gold coins dating from the 620's AD.
The armour at Sutton Hoo appears to be Swedish, or at least it is made in the Swedish style. Certainly the custom of ship burials is a Nordic one - there are many similar Viking remains in Denmark and Sweden. There is also a large silver dish made in Byzantium about 500 AD and a set of 10 silver bowls from the Mediterranean.
Conjecture focuses on Redwald, a Saxon "bretwalda", or king, of East Anglia.
According to the Venerable Bede in his "Ecclesiastical History", Redwald ruled East Anglia in 616, although his power may have stretched as far north as the Humber. Redwald was the first East Anglian king to pay any heed to Christianity. He may have converted to the new religion - certainly his successors were Christian.
Archaeologists have reconstructed how the burial at Sutton Hoo must have taken place. A long trench was dug atop a 100 ft. high cliff above the river Deben. The ship was dragged up from the river and set in the trench. A hut was built in the centre of the ship, and there was placed a large coffin and the grave goods. The trench was then filled in and a large mound erected over the top.
When the ship was uncovered the timbers had rotted away. However, the rivets still remained, and the rotting timbers had stained the sand, so the pattern of boat construction could be determined, and a good picture of the boat emerged. It was about 90 feet long and 14 feet wide, with a high bow and stern. It is easily the largest Anglo-Saxon ship ever discovered.
The importance of Sutton Hoo cannot be overstated. From the grave goods we can learn a lot about the pattern of life in this darkest part of the Dark Ages in Britain. Even the style of the craftsmanship lets us draw conclusions about how strong were Saxon connections with rest of Europe.In this case it seems clear that there was a strong Norse influence in East Anglia, but also ties to Gaul and the Mediterranean. Clearly, trade with those areas was maintained throughout these troubled times.
The goods discovered at Sutton Hoo are on display at the British Museum in London.
At Sutton Hoo, 37 Merovingian coins were found, the latest of which dates to the 620s.
Merovingian gold tremissis of the moneyer Ioannes (John) of Cadolidi or Capolidi, probably early 7th century. The front shows a very crude diademed bust, probably facing left. The back shows an unusual cross, probably derived from a Byzantine cross-on-steps design. Although very little of the inscription can be read, it can be identified from its similarity to another coin, now in Paris. The location of Cadolidi/ Capolidi is uncertain.
Merovingian gold tremissis
of the moneyer Vitalis of Paris, late 6th- early 7th century. The inscription
on the front tells us that the coin was issued in Paris. The back gives
the name of the moneyer, although part of the inscription is missing.
The front shows a diademed bust facing right, and the back shows a cross
amcrée, possibly over a globe. This coin belongs to a series
that was in use from c.570/580-c.670; more precise dating will depend
on testing the purity of the gold.