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Metal detecting holidays in England

with the Worlds most successful metal detecting club

Twinned with Midwest Historical Research Society USA

Houses of Lancaster and York, 1377-1485


New seperate page for Richard II 1377-1399 (grandson of Edward III, son of the Black Prince)


Henry IV 1399-1413 (grandson of Edward III, son of John of Gaunt)


New separate page for Henry V 1413-1422 (son of Henry IV)


New separate page for Henry VI 1422-1461 (son of Henry V)

 


Edward IV 1461-1483 (great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III's youngest son)


Richard III 1483-1485 (uncle of Edward V)

Henry IV 1399-1413

In 1386 Henry joined a group of opposition leaders - the Lords Appellants - who outlawed Richard's closest associates and forced the King to accept their counsel. In 1398 Richard took revenge, banishing Henry after a court struggle. The following year, John of Gaunt died. Richard seized the family estates, depriving Henry of his inheritance and prompting him to invade England. Richard surrendered in August and Henry was crowned the following month.

His first task was to consolidate his position. Most rebellions were quashed easily but the revolt of Owen Glendower was more serious. Glendower aimed to install the Earl of March, Richard II's legitimate heir, as king. He captured Edmund Mortimer, March's uncle, and persuaded him to join them. Glendower then allied himself with Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and his son Henry, called Hotspur. Hotspur's brief uprising, Henry's most serious challenge, ended when the King's forces killed him in battle near Shrewsbury in July 1403.

Northumberland's rebellion in 1408 was quickly suppressed and was the last armed challenge to Henry's authority. However, he also had to fight off Scottish border raids and conflict with the French. To finance these activities, Henry was forced to rely on parliamentary grants. From 1401 to 1406 Parliament repeatedly accused him of fiscal mismanagement and gradually acquired new powers over royal expenditures and appointments.

As Henry's health deteriorated, a power struggle developed between his favourite, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, and a faction headed by Henry's half brothers and Prince Henry. From 1408 to 1411 the government was dominated first by Archbishop Arundel and then the Henry. Argument raged over the best strategy to adopt in France, where civil war was raging; Henry wanted to resume war in France, but the king favoured peace. In 1411 the king recovered and the Prince of Wales was dismissed from the council. Uneasy relations between the prince and his father lasted until Henry IV's death in 1413.

Rare Henry IV 1399 AD hammered silver penny  

1399 - 1413 Henry IV hammered silver penny - Rare double struck crown

Quatrefoil with pellet on reverse

Rev CIVI/TAS/EBO/RACI - York mint

0.89g, 16.83mm

Very rare Henry IV 1399 - 1412 Heavy coinage Type F London mint hammered silver half groat
Henry hammered silver halfpenny 0.40g, 12.78mm London mint, Initial mark cross and extra pellets to two qtrs as Henry IV's 2nd reign 1470 but legend does not match - needs more research
Possible Henry IV hammered silver penny - annulet by crown type, Lis on neck
1399 - 1413 Henry IV hammered silver penny

1399 1413 Henry IV hammered silver half penny - light coinage - Type 1

Obv + hENRIC x REXx ANGL'

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

14.40mm,0.48g

 

1399 - 1413 Henry IV hammered silver half penny

Obv + *** IC REX ANGLx

Rev CIVI/***DON - London mint

 

1413-22 Henry V hammered silver half penny - Type 2, pellet and broken annulet by crown - satire stops in reverse legend

Obv + HENRIC REX ANGL

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1413-22 Henry V hammered silver penny

Double satire stop on obverse

Quadrefoil with pellet at centre on reverse cross

York mint Archiepiscopal issue

1461-1483 Edward IV

King Edward IV was was declared successor to Henry VI in 1460. Following York's death that December, Edward defeated Henry's Lancastrian supporters before being crowned Edward IV in June 1461.

Until 1470 he concentrated on suppressing opposition to his rule. However, his real problem lay in the Earl of Warwick, 'the Kingmaker'. Warwick expected his support in 1461 to bring him power. However, Edward, while apparently interested only in women and pageantry, was determined to rule independently. In 1464 he embarrassed Warwick, who was planning a political marriage for Edward, by disclosing his secret marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, a commoner.

By showering favours on Elizabeth's relatives, Edward began to build up a faction to counter Warwick. Gradually Warwick lost his influence. Humiliated, he allied himself to Edward's brother George, Duke of Clarence, and Henry VI's queen, Margaret of Anjou. Fleeing to France in October 1469, he and Margaret's Lancastrian forces gathered, invading England in September 1470. Edward fled to the Netherlands until March 1471, when he and his brother Richard, duke of Gloucester, returned to England. Taking London, he defeated and killed Warwick at Barnet before defeating the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury. Henry VI was put to death in the Tower.

The second part of Edward's reign, from 1471 to 1483, was a period of relative order, peace, and security. He was popular, had a large personal income and was less in need of parliamentary grants than his predecessors, so levied fewer taxes and called Parliament only six times. Commercial treaties, external peace and internal order revived trade, benefiting customs duties and other revenues. Councils were set up to govern in the Marches of Wales and in the north.

Edward died in 1483 and Edward and Richard were left in the protection of their uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester. He housed them in the Tower of London, where he probably had them killed. On the day after the date set for Edward V's coronation Parliament unanimously requested the Duke to take the throne. He accepted and was crowned Richard III.

1461 Edward IV hammered silver groat-First reign -Initial mark Long cross fitchee

Trefoils on cusps except above crown

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1471 Edward IV hammered silver groat

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1464 Edward IV First reign light coinage Type VI Very clear London, Initial mark sun on both sides, Quatrefoils at neck, Fleur on cusps except over crown 3.01g, 25.03mm

obV EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC

rev CIVITAS LONDON

1464-5 Edward IV hammered silver half groat-

Quatrefoils by neck- standard F type

obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC HIBERINE

rev CIVITAS LONDON - London mint

18.50mm,1.11g

Hammered silver penny (c)
Farthing 1/4 penny
Edward IV 1464 -70 London mint - Plain cross initial mark hammered silver groat 2.63g, 25.65 mm
Edward IV 1461- 1485 hammered silver groat ( 4 pence)
Groat (4 pence) York mint(Civitas EboRaci) found by Canadian Don
1461-4 Edward IV hammerd silver penny

Medieval hammered silver halfpenny 0.36g, 12.22mm Weight of an Edward IV 1464- 70, not confirmed ID yet

rev CIVITAS LONDON

1461- 4 Edward IV hammered silver halfpenny - Heavy coinage Class 1a - extra pellets by crown - London mint,

obv EDWARD REX ANG

rev CIVITAS LONDON

0.47g,13.03mm

1471-83 Edward IV second reign hammered silver half penny 0.37g,12.74mm

obv EDWARD DEI GRA REX

Edward IV 1461-1470 AD hammered silver penny Durham (CIVITAS DVNOLIN) Type IV Rose in centre of reverse.
1465 Edward IV silver groat (4 pence) - Norwich mint N on breast - quatrefoils by neck NORWIC
Edward IV 1461-1470 hammered silver penny - Trefoils each side of neck - Quatrefoil-with-pellet at centre of reverse

Unknown 1461 Edward IV DURHAM issue hammered silver penny

obv EDWARD REX ANGLIE

Note the 4 pellet stops both sides of REX on obv legend - not listed in refernence books, Legend EDWARD REX ANGLIE is an Edward IV Durham issue.

1480-1500 Archbishop Thomas Rotherham hammered silver penny

Quartrefoil at the centre of reverse with pellet

1471-83 Edward IV second reign type 2h hammered silver half penny

Obv O EDWARD DI [G REX]AN

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1461 Edward IV hammered silver penny - York Archiepiscopal Issue - Type VIIiii - quatrefoil each side of neck - Quatefoil - with-pellet at centre of reverse.

Obv EDWARD+DI+GRA+REX+ANGL

1472-6 Edward IV 2nd Reign - hammered silver halfpenny - Cross with 4 pellets initial mark -

Obv EDWARD DEI GRA REX

Rev R CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1471 -1483 Edward IV hammered silver groat - possible annulet and pellet initial mark

Obv EDWARD *****

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1472 Edward IV hammered silver groat Type 10 , initial mark sun both sides, trefoils by neck, long cross fitchee

obv EDWARD DIA.REX.ANGL.Z.FRANC

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

25.18mm, 2.79g

Another unpublished coin in Wren or North - Clearly an Archbishop or Archiepiscopal issue with quatrefoils on reverse and 5 sided star and key by bust. No coin has the combination of star and key. Should be T or B and key. Edward IV 1461 AD - I will send it off to the British Musuem expert for his views

1477 Edward IV hammered silver half groat - Rose mintmark, C on breast

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANCE

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR Canterbury mint

1465 Edward IV hammered silver half penny - Light coinage type - York mint July 1465 to Sept 1471- no trefoils by neck

Obv - EDWARD DI GRA REX A

Rev CIVI/TAS/EBO/RACI - York mint

11.77mm, 0.36g

1461-83 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Rose at centre of reverse cross

Durham mint

Sede Vacante 1472-75 Edward IV hammered silver (Archiepiscopal issue) penny

G & key by bust Reverse plain cross

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL - York mint

1464/5 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Type VIIi - 0.93g, 18.07mm

obv EDWARD DI GRA RE ANGL

Rev CIVI/TAS/EBO/RACI - York Mint - Archiepiscopal issue

1476 Edward IV (Durham) hammered silver penny - D at centre of reverse cross
1461 -70 Edward IV hamnmered silver penny - G & key by bust - York mint - quatrefoil with pellet at centre of reverse cross
1465-6 Edward IV hammered silver groat - sun mint mark -quadrefoils by neck - light coinage
1465-6 Edward IV hammered silver groat - sun mint mark -quadrefoils by neck - light coinage

1471-1483 Edward IV hammered silver groat - 2nd reign, B on breast

rev BBISTOW - Bristol mint

1471- 1483 Edward IV hammered silver groat (4 pence) - 2nd reign - Initial mark pierced cross

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC

Rev CIVI/TAS/LOND/DON - London mint

 

1461 Edward IV Irish hammered silver penny
1461 Edward IV Irish hammered silver penny

1461-85 Edward IV hammered silver groat - Crown mint mark

London mint

1461- 1485 Edward IV hammered silver groat -First reign Type VII - Quatrefoils at neck, Initial mark crown

Rev EDWARD DI GRA REX x ANGL Z FRANC

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1464 -70 Edward IV hammered silver halfpenny - Trefoils by neck

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1464 Edward IV hammered silver penny - quatrefoil in reverse cross - Quatrefoils by neck

Rev CIVI/TAS/EBO/RACI - York mint

1461- 1470 Edward IV hammered silver penny

Trefoils by neck - quatrefoil in centre of reverse cross

Extra pellet (smaller) in two quadrants

Rev CIVI/TAS/ ** - Durham mint

1464 Edward IV hammered silver half groat - im Rose

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FR

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR

1461- 70 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Class IV, Rose in centre of reverse cross

im Cross - Extra pellet in one quadrent of reverse cross

Obv EDWARD +REX+ANGLIE Z FR

Durham mint

1471 -1470 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Class XII

D at centre of reverse cross

Rev DVNO/LIN - Durham mint

Edward IV hammered silver half groat - C on breast Trefoils over crown - IM Rose Large

2nd reign Canterbury April 1471 - April 1483

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRA

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR Canterbury mint

 

1476 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Type Dudley local - Durham IM Cinquefoil

Bishop William Dudley 1476-1483

DV by bust - No D at centre of reverse cross is rare

Obv EDWARD + DI + GRA REX ANGL

 

1465-1476 Edward IV hammered silver penny - York issue Type XVIiv

Archiepiscopal issue

Quadrefoil with pellet at centre of reverse cross - Rose by neck

1461 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Durham mint

B at centre of reverse cross

1471 Edward IV hammered silver half penny - im short cross fitchee

Obv + EDW *** REX

Rev Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON- London mint

0.47g,12.77

1461- 1483 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Quatrefoil with pellet at centre of reverse cross

Rev CIVI/TAS/EBO/RACI - York mint

Rare find - our first ever annulet mint mark I have seen on a coin found here

1471-2 Edward IV hammered silver half penny - im annulet - Type 2h

Obv EDWARD DI REX AN

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON- London mint

0.33g, 12.87mm

1471-1483 Edward IV hammered silver penny - XIII - XVa Durham mint

D at centre of reverse cross- B & trefoil to side of neck

1461- 1470 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Type X - Cross Fitchee Long
1461- 70 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Local (Durham)

1471 Edward IV hammered silver penny - double satire stops in reverse legend - D at centre of reverse cross

Ob EDW ***** LIE

Obv CIVI/TAS

1461- 70 Edward IV hammered silver penny - D at centre of reverse cross

1464-70 Edward IV hammered silver groat - Light coinage - quatrefoils by neck - Mint mark crown - fleurs on cups

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - - London mint

1464-1470 Edward IV hammered silver halfgroat - Rose mint mark Light Issue Royal

Obv EDW *** ANGL Z FRA

Rev CIVI/TAS/CAN/TOR - Canterbury mint

1464 - 70 Edward IV hammered silver half penny - Light coinage Type 6

Trefoils by neck I.m Long cross fitchee

Obv + EDWARD DI GRA REX

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1461 - 1483 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Durham mint

Obv NGLIE +

1461 -1464 Edward IV hammered silver groat - 9 arches to tressure - quatrefoils by neck - trefoils on cusps but not over crown

Obv + EDWARD ** C

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1464 -70 Edward IV hammered silver penny Dublin Ireland

quadrefoil with pellet at centre of reverse cross

Rev ACIE - Dublin mint

1461-70 Edward IV hammered silver long cross penny - quatrefoil to each side of neck - initial mark rose

Quatrefoil with pellet in centre of reverse cross - York mint

1462 Edward IV hammered silver long cross penny

D at centre of reverse cross - Durham mint

1464-70 Edward IV hammered silver half penny- Light coinage

Obv EDWARD DI GRA REX

Rev CIVI/TAS/LOND/DON - London mint

13.13mm, 0.34g

1464/5 -1470 Edward IV hammered silver groat, light coinage - im Crown/crown - tefoils on cusps

North 1570 VII

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint

1468-9 Edward IV hammered silver penny - Crown mint mark - Royal Issue

Quadrefoil with pellet at centre of reverse cross

Obv EDWARDxDI ****

Rev CIVI/TAS/EBO RACI - York mint

1461 - 70 Edward IV hammered silver penny

Obv + EDWARD REX ANGL Z FRA

Rev CIVI/TAS/LOND/DON - London mint

1465-76 Edward IV hammererd silver long cross penny -T and key by neck - Class XXIiv (York)

Bishop George Neville - Quatrefoil at centre of reverse cross

Obv EDW***********

1472 -8 Irish Edward IV hammered silver long cross penny - Satires by neck - Quatrefoil in centre of reverse cross

Rev TAS/WAR - Warterford mint

1469-70 Edward IV hammered silver half penny - Y mint mark - Type 3a

Canterbury mint Archbishop Thomas Bourchier

Obv + EDWA*** EX

1480-3 Edward IV hammered silver half penny - Heradic cinquefoil mint mark - London mint

Obv +EDW****A REX

1461-1470 Edward IV hammered silver penny - B by neck , class XIII-XVa Durham

1461-4 Edward IV hammered silver half penny - Heavy coinage -Trefoils by neck both sides

Obv *** DI GRA RE

Rev TAS/L** London mint

1461- 1470 Edward IV hammered silver penny - B at centre of reverse cross - Durham mint

1464- 1470 Edward IV hammered silver half groat - Crown mint mark

Obv EDWARD' DI GRA REX ANGL Z ***

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON DON - London mint

1471- 83 Edward IV hammered silver long cross penny - D at centre of reverse cross

Rev TAS/DV = Durham mint

Edward V April to June 1483

King of England from April to June 1483, he was deposed and probably murdered by Richard III, before his coronation.

The eldest surviving son of Edward IV, he was born when his father was in brief exile in Holland after being deposed by the Earl of Warwick. After Edward IV had reclaimed his crown, young Edward was made prince of Wales in June 1471. He was sent with his mother to Ludlow in 1473 to be titular ruler of Wales and the Welsh Marches, staying there for much of the rest of his father's reign.

Upon Edward IV's death in April 1483, Edward became king, aged 12. His uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was appointed protector. Conflict between Gloucester and the Woodville nobles who dominated Edward V soon led the duke to arrest the Woodvilles and gain possession of Edward and his younger brother, Richard. The two princes were housed in the Tower of London, then a royal residence as well as a prison.

Edward V's brief reign came to an end on 26 June, when parliament accepted Gloucester's claim that Edward IV's marriage was invalid and his children illegitimate. It proclaimed Gloucester Richard III and, soon afterwards, the two princes disappeared from the Tower. It is possible they were murdered by Richard's agents in August 1483, but responsibility for the crime has also been attributed to Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, and to Richard's successor, Henry VII. Skeletons found in the Tower in 1674 are thought to be those of Edward and his brother.

Very rare 1483 Edward V hammered silver groat - Halved sun and rose mint mark

Obv EDWA ***

Rev CIVI/TAS/LON/DON - London mint