• Metal detecting holidays in England with the World's most successful metal detecting club.

    Twinned with Midwest Historical Research Society USA


    Hammered coin history

    The withdrawal of Roman forces from Britain signalled the change to Anglo-Saxon Britain. The collapse of administration resulted in the deterioration of money. Coins were copied from obsolete Roman coinage and later made in Anglo-Saxon style. Gold coinage became increasingly debased and by the mid 650's silver coinage took over.
    By the 770's coinage degenerated to base silver and finally to copper or brass, Pennies were then issued by various rulers and remained virtually the sole denomination of English coinage for almost five centuries.
    The currency was controlled mainly by the central government and the coinage types were changed at intervals in order to raise revenue from new dies and keep the currency in good state. Full pennies were sheared into 'halfpennies' and 'fourth things' - farthings.

    Around 1106-7 the standard of coinage deterioriated and many genuine coins were being cut to see if they were plated counterfeits. This continued until the 'Great Re-coinage' of Edward I, 1279. Interestingly, Edward I Pennies were legal tender up until 1698, some 425 years after first being introduced.
    Bi-metalic coinage was successfully introduced in about 1351 along with new silver denominations, the Groat and its Halves.

    By 1663, the ancient hand hammering process was finally superseded by machinery made by Peter Blondeau who initiated the first portrait coins of Oliver Cromwell in 1656.

    Saxon 410 - 1065 coins


    Norman and Plantagenet Kings, 1066-1377

    William the Conqueror 1066-1377

    William Rufus 1087-1100 (son of William)

    Henry I 1100-1135 (William Rufus' brother)

    Stephen 1135-1154 (nephew of Henry I)

    Henry II 1154-1189 (grandson of Henry I)

    Richard I 1189-1199 (third son of Henry II)

    John 1199-1216 (fifth son of Henry II)

    Henry III 1216-1272 (son of John)

    Edward I 1272-1307 (son of Henry III)

    Edward II 1307-1327 (son of Edward I)

    Edward III 1327-1377 (son of Edward II)


    Houses of Lancaster and York, 1377-1485

    Richard II 1377-1399 (grandson of Edward III, son of the Black Prince)

    Henry IV 1399-1413 (grandson of Edward III, son of John of Gaunt)

    Henry V 1413-1422 (son of Henry IV)

    Henry VI 1422-1461 (son of Henry V)

    Edward IV 1461-1483 (great grandson of Edmund of York, Edward III's youngest son)

    Richard III 1483-1485 (uncle of Edward V)

    Tudors 1485 - 1603

    Henry VII 1485-1509 (grandson of Henry V, wife's 2nd husband)

    Henry VIII 1509-1547 (Henry VII's second son)

    Edward V 1547-1553 (Henry's son by Jane Seymour)

    Mary 1553 to 1558 (Henry's daughter by Queen Catherine)

    Elizabeth 1st 1558 - 1603 (Henry's daughter by Anne Boleyn)


    House of Stuart, 1603-1714

    James 1st 1603- 25
    (great-great-grandson of Henry VII)

    Charles I 1625-1649 (second son of James)

    [Commonwealth 1649-1660]


    Foreign hammered silver